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takes the blame for nickel allergies
like cars might be blamed for traffic accidents.
Dr. Matthew Zirwas reports that nickel allergies in the US are likely incorrectly attributed to piercing jewelry metals (e.g. nickel in piercing jewelry). There is evidence he says that the diet and other factors may be major contributors and that "nickel" allergies come and go relative to the ingested foods we eat: "Healthy" type foods like oatmeal, whole grains, nuts, soy which contain trace amounts but build up in the body over time. Change your diet. (See below) Dr. Matthew Zirwas
Because Finland has an environmental nickel problem they were able to persuade the EU authorities to ban 316L in the EU because nickel is an ingredient in stainless steel and require the use of Titanium for initial piercings. This is sad because the nickel in the bulk material never contacts the skin at all, at any time. 316L stainless steel is incorrectly blamed.
To accurately regard the nickel content in stainless steel relative to piercing use I would like to use an analogy. Analogies are not meant as proof but as an aid in understanding a particular concept.
When you touch the human body you touch the skin, not what is beneath the skin, the muscles, blood, dermis etc. Like skin, Chromium in stainless steels coats every inch of the bulk stainless steel beneath the surface. The chromium imparts the shiny appearance and is so resistant to corrosion it has long been used for medical implants within the body. The corrosion expert, Uhlig, writes in his authoritative work, Corrosion that all metals deteriorate in a liquid environment, but some metals are strongly resistant and a chromium layer is one of the best defenses against corrosion. Chromium is mixed in stainless steels and is everywhere including the surface. When you touch your kitchen faucet you only contact the chromium oxide surface film, not the nickel in the bulk metal, never, which is why there are no claims of getting nickel allergy from faucets. Piercing Jewelry is inappropriately blamed. You can't get nickel from 316L through contact in body piercing. You thin chromium layer isn't rubbed away. When it is damaged it quickly forms the protective chromium layer again by drawing oxygen from the surrounding air or liquid, just like epidermal cells proliferate on their own and repairs the deficit of the skin.
The only way to get nickel to leach from the bulk is by boiling it at 300 degrees for 10 hours in tomato sauce. The claims that nickel is leached from 316L is a fiction to get you to buy a more expensive kind that is no better at all in the application of pierced jewelry. A scam if you like because it makes no difference whatsoever for body jewelry.
The only reports of nickel coming from stainless steel is of medically implanted devices at the crevice point of a screw holding a plate to a bone that the liquid environment is depleted of oxygen. It happens with medical implants inside the body, not piercing jewelry.
When oxygen in air or liquid contacts a SS product the oxygen immediately bonds with the chromium that is on the surface creating chromium oxides everywhere, a thin layer that resists liquid or air corrosion. As long as oxygen is present (washing, moving, exposing to air) your 316L piercing jewelry will never leach allergy producing nickel.
Consider that nickel-sensitive people do not break out in a rash when they touch a stainless steel fork, or railings ubiquitously made of SS.
Even the CDC on line Toxic look at Nickel seems to miss this because they reason that
1) Nickel causes allergies.
It is not fair for the CDC to publish statements that leads
people to think they can develop an allergy from the nickel if they
use 316L body piercing jewelry rather than F138 which is no better than
316L. The arguments they use are phony to get your money.
…For people who have puzzling rashes and have had reactions to metal items such as earrings, belt buckles or watches, Zirwas suggests they pay attention to their diets. In addition to avoiding foods that are high in nickel,
Dr. Zirwas tells patients to take vitamin C with every meal because it will bind to the nickel in the food and prevent absorption….It can be really hard to figure out that the nickel in their diet is the source…Nickel is one of the most common metals in our environment. It naturally occurs as a mineral in soil and in drinking water. Nickel is commonly used as a protective coating for other metals and it is used in coins, glass, ceramics, magnets and batteries.
Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Rash of Nickel Food
Allergies linked to a Healthier Diet, March 1, 2012